Visual Discrimination or Perception – The ability to recognize how objects, pictures, shapes,
letters, and words are similar and how they are different.
• Visual Memory – The ability to remember what you have seen, which is necessary for letter and
• Perceptual Motor Skills – This includes eye-hand coordination, which helps us track a line of print
with our eyes, and fine motor skills, which allows us to be able to write.
• Orientation – This refers to the ability to move our eyes from left to right and top to bottom,
which is the way a page of print is read.
• Auditory Discrimination or Perception – The ability to discriminate between sounds, necessary for
learning letter sounds.
• Auditory Memory – This is the ability to remember the sounds letters make, and be able to
reproduce them and blend them together to decode words.
• Concept Development – This involves providing children with first-hand experiences that can be
related to language and reading, which brings meaning to a printed page.
• Book Readiness – Children should know how to care for books, open them and turn pages properly.
• Oral Language – The ability to put words together to form sentences to convey thoughts and
• Letters – This includes consonants and vowels, as well as diagraphs, learning the sounds they
convey, and the ability to blend these sounds together to make words.
• Attitude – To develop a love of reading and books.